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零件熱應力〈Thermal Stress〉的把關

一般來說有三種不同的應力測試方式可以判斷或是推估電源供應器的產品可靠度或是輸出穩定度,分別是熱應力〈Thermal Stress〉測試、電壓應力〈Voltage Stress〉測試、電流應力〈Current Stress〉。為了揭開灰色地帶的神秘面紗,本文將介紹有關熱應力的部分,還有除了客戶指定的要求外,全漢企業是針對下面幾項重要零件項目以及熱應力的測定結果要求來測試產品如下表:

Device(零件品項) Type(類別) Category(分類) Derating Thermal(額定降溫值)
Capacitor(電容器) 90%
MOSFET(場效電晶體) Main Switch(主要開關) 85%
Small Signal(小信號開關)
Diode(二極體)
IC(控制IC)
Photo Coupler(光耦合器)
Inductor(電感) Transformer(電壓器) 85%
Choke(扼流器) 90%

產品可靠度與輸出穩定度一直是電源供應器選擇的重點之一,然大多數的廠商無法有效提出相關的數據來佐證他們的產品比他牌廠商在產品可靠度與輸出穩定度上有優勢,因此讓許多不肖的品牌廠商有灰色地帶去操作電源供應器的零件選用;且大部分的消費者不會經常性地讓電腦設備在電源供應器滿載下使用,也不會讓電腦處於環境溫度超過40℃或甚至於在50℃〈高階產品的耐溫設定〉的條件下使用,不肖業者因此偷料或是讓零件在超過100%的額定條件下使用。我們剛剛提到多數的消費者不會滿載使用,通常產品不會在買回來一年內壞掉,也因此讓這些不肖業者有空間操作,而當消費者使用一段時間發生問題後往往也過保固期限,或是自認倒楣不去追究。

除了定義重要的零件測試標準外,我們的測試條件也很嚴苛,規定產品要在申請安規的最高耐溫條件下且不同滿載條件下測定這些零組件,以下是我們一個80 Plus Gold的650W產品內部設定的測試條件:

  • AC Input (交流輸入電壓): 90Vac/115Vac/230Vac/264Vac
  • Frequency (交流輸入頻率): 47Hz/60Hz/50Hz/63Hz
  • Ambient Temperature (環境溫度): 40℃
Loading(負載) +5V +12V -12V +3.3V +5Vsb
FL1(滿載條件1) 20A 42.85A 0.3A 6.05A 2.5A
FL2(滿載條件2) 10.8A 43.9A 0.3A 20A 0A
FL3(滿載條件3) 0.1A 54.16A 0A 0A 0A
SB Mode(待機模式) * * * * 2.5A

輸入以及輸出條件設定好後,公司內規會選用這個產品所有報備安規的風扇中散熱能力最差的那顆風扇做測定,因為使用條件最差的都可以符合公司規定時,選用散熱條件最好的風扇一定可以讓測試結果表現得更好,同樣的這顆650W金牌產品的風扇設定如下表:

Fan Type(風扇類型) Input Voltage
(輸入電壓)
Load
(負載)
Fan Voltage(Vdc)
(風扇設定電壓)
FAN, MIDDLE,0.3A,12V,120*25,27dB, 55-68cfm,1800rpm,SLEEVE,2PIN, 150mm,CONNECT,D12SM-12,YATE LOON/NICE FULL 90Vac/47HZ FL1 11.44
FL2 11.44
FL3 11.44
115Vac/60Hz FL1 11.44
FL2 11.44
FL3 11.44
230Vac/50Hz FL1 11.44
FL2 11.44
FL3 11.44
264Vac/63Hz FL1 11.44
FL2 11.44
FL3 11.44

下面幾個表格是根據全漢企業的設定條件下所測得的數據,所有測項都符合內部標準,我們更規定研發單位所有的新機種一定要通過這個關卡才可以安排產品的試產,最後試產沒有問題才可以量產產品。

(UNIT:)

Location SPEC FL1 Result
90V Derating (%) 115V Derating (%) 230V Derating (%) 264V Derating (%)
QS203 175 77.99 44.6 77.41 44.2 77.3 44.2 77.26 44.1 Pass
QS201 175 87.51 50 86.5 49.4 86.24 49.3 85.97 49.1 Pass
QS103 175 63.66 36.4 62.68 35.8 62.23 35.6 62.21 35.5 Pass
CS106 105 64.21 61.2 63.85 60.8 63.56 60.5 63.53 60.5 Pass
FL1 130 77.59 59.7 60.32 46.4 49.28 37.9 48.38 37.2 Pass
FL3 130 92.86 71.4 70.85 54.5 56.33 43.3 54.95 42.3 Pass
BD1 150 93.11 62.1 80.44 53.6 62.55 41.7 60.59 40.4 Pass
C6 105 51.19 48.8 48.73 46.4 46.11 43.9 45.47 43.3 Pass
L1 130 107.93 83 89.45 68.8 67.99 52.3 61.32 47.2 Pass
Q201 150 79.39 52.9 71.7 47.8 65.54 43.7 65.39 43.6 Pass
Q202 150 72.11 48.1 65.43 43.6 60.07 40 59.98 40 Pass
D6 175 73.18 41.8 65.5 37.4 57.97 33.1 57.41 32.8 Pass
Q1 150 85.02 56.7 70.03 46.7 57.85 38.6 57.26 38.2 Pass
L201 130 75.28 57.9 71.72 55.2 68.93 53 68.48 52.7 Pass
T3 130 44.16 34 43.56 33.5 43.15 33.2 43.35 33.3 Pass
T201 130 80.97 62.3 80.1 61.6 79.7 61.3 78.98 60.8 Pass
T101 130 72.37 55.7 71.41 54.9 70.92 54.6 70.37 54.1 Pass
LS801 130 62.76 48.3 62.34 48 62.26 47.9 62.45 48 Pass
LS802 130 52.46 40.4 52.18 40.1 52.05 40 52.26 40.2 Pass
CS202 105 66.64 63.5 66.27 63.1 66.49 63.3 66.57 63.4 Pass
CS805 105 53.19 50.7 52.8 50.3 52.81 50.3 53.06 50.5 Pass
CS213 105 47.14 44.9 46.77 44.5 46.85 44.6 47.09 44.8 Pass
QS805 175 62.19 35.5 61.81 35.3 61.73 35.3 62.09 35.5 Pass
QS806 175 52.54 30 52.19 29.8 52.18 29.8 52.37 29.9 Pass
QS803 175 64.34 36.8 64.01 36.6 63.89 36.5 64.2 36.7 Pass
QS804 175 61.74 35.3 61.19 35 61.32 35 61.45 35.1 Pass
IC101 125 67.15 53.7 66.45 53.2 66.18 52.9 66.3 53 Pass
IC801 150 53.59 35.7 53.25 35.5 53.23 35.5 53.42 35.6 Pass
D2 150 60.55 40.4 55.08 36.7 49.38 32.9 48.58 32.4 Pass
LS101 130 50.76 39 50.2 38.6 50.01 38.5 50.04 38.5 Pass
LS201 130 65.48 50.4 65.1 50.1 65.05 50 65.24 50.2 Pass
R36 150 84.77 56.5 69.52 46.3 53.97 36 52.35 34.9 Pass
L2 130 77.61 59.7 67.27 51.7 57.03 43.9 55.85 43 Pass
CT201 130 50.93 39.2 48.85 37.6 47.2 36.3 47.28 36.4 Pass
AMB 40 40 40 40

 

Location SPEC FL2 Result
90V Derating (%) 115V Derating (%) 230V Derating (%) 264V Derating (%)
QS203 175 79.41 45.4 79.03 45.2 78.73 45 78.86 45.1 Pass
QS201 175 88.37 50.5 87.54 50 87.17 49.8 87.22 49.8 Pass
QS103 175 59.64 34.1 58.84 33.6 58.37 33.4 58.38 33.4 Pass
CS106 105 61.44 58.5 61.02 58.1 60.86 58 60.86 58 Pass
FL1 130 76.77 59.1 59.75 46 48.71 37.5 48.16 37 Pass
FL3 130 92.52 71.2 70.34 54.1 56.15 43.2 54.83 42.2 Pass
BD1 150 93.03 62 80.51 53.7 62.52 41.7 60.7 40.5 Pass
C6 105 50.95 48.5 48.62 46.3 46.06 43.9 46.07 43.9 Pass
L1 130 107.97 83.1 89.5 68.8 68.01 52.3 64.82 49.9 Pass
Q201 150 80.11 53.4 72.34 48.2 66.01 44 65.77 43.8 Pass
Q202 150 72.65 48.4 65.95 44 60.47 40.3 60.33 40.2 Pass
D6 175 73.35 41.9 65.6 37.5 58.09 33.2 57.5 32.9 Pass
Q1 150 85.31 56.9 70.33 46.9 58.03 38.7 57.39 38.3 Pass
L201 130 75.88 58.4 72.32 55.6 69.61 53.5 69.67 53.6 Pass
T3 130 44.05 33.9 43.5 33.5 43.19 33.2 43.24 33.3 Pass
T201 130 82.14 63.2 81.25 62.5 80.84 62.2 80.87 62.2 Pass
T101 130 63.03 48.5 62.14 47.8 61.41 47.2 61.6 47.4 Pass
LS801 130 56.12 43.2 55.85 43 55.62 42.8 55.73 42.9 Pass
LS802 130 66.42 51.1 66.13 50.9 66.04 50.8 66.06 50.8 Pass
CS202 105 68.07 64.8 67.94 64.7 67.92 64.7 68.03 64.8 Pass
CS805 105 59.86 57 59.65 56.8 59.55 56.7 59.63 56.8 Pass
CS213 105 47.51 45.2 47.39 45.1 47.35 45.1 47.49 45.2 Pass
QS805 175 68.06 38.9 67.84 38.8 67.7 38.7 67.8 38.7 Pass
QS806 175 62.14 35.5 61.9 35.4 61.79 35.3 61.95 35.4 Pass
QS803 175 63.75 36.4 63.59 36.3 63.46 36.3 63.56 36.3 Pass
QS804 175 58.38 33.4 58.09 33.2 58 33.1 58.12 33.2 Pass
IC101 125 60.24 48.2 59.55 47.6 59.21 47.4 59.34 47.5 Pass
ICS801 150 54.02 36 53.79 35.9 53.78 35.9 53.91 35.9 Pass
D2 150 60.45 40.3 55 36.7 49.32 32.9 48.88 32.6 Pass
LS101 130 49.03 37.7 48.69 37.5 48.44 37.3 48.52 37.3 Pass
LS201 130 67.69 52.1 67.44 51.9 67.3 51.8 67.29 51.8 Pass
R36 150 84.79 56.5 69.72 46.5 53.95 36 52.71 35.1 Pass
L2 130 77.65 59.7 67.32 51.8 56.93 43.8 56 43.1 Pass
CT201 130 51 39.2 48.91 37.6 47.2 36.3 47.22 36.3 Pass
AMB 40 40 40 40

 

Location SPEC FL3 Result
90V Derating (%) 115V Derating (%) 230V Derating (%) 264V Derating (%)
QS203 175 77.13 44.1 76.79 43.9 76.67 43.8 76.84 43.9 Pass
QS201 175 85.24 48.7 84.51 48.3 84.19 48.1 84.33 48.2 Pass
QS103 175 56.88 32.5 56.26 32.1 55.73 31.8 55.88 31.9 Pass
CS106 105 57.92 55.2 57.54 54.8 57.4 54.7 57.51 54.8 Pass
FL1 130 71.32 54.9 57.97 44.6 47.19 36.3 46.85 36 Pass
FL3 130 86.15 66.3 68.78 52.9 54.61 42 53.84 41.4 Pass
BD1 150 91.41 60.9 79.81 53.2 61.92 41.3 60.31 40.2 Pass
C6 105 50.78 48.4 48.52 46.2 45.97 43.8 46.05 43.9 Pass
L1 130 106.33 81.8 88.71 68.2 67.78 52.1 64.74 49.8 Pass
Q201 150 78.58 52.4 71.33 47.6 65.26 43.5 65.13 43.4 Pass
Q202 150 71.55 47.7 65.25 43.5 60.02 40 59.86 39.9 Pass
D6 175 72.37 41.4 65.17 37.2 57.73 33 57.28 32.7 Pass
Q1 150 83.64 55.8 69.57 46.4 57.58 38.4 57.16 38.1 Pass
L201 130 74.85 57.6 71.52 55 68.74 52.9 68.95 53 Pass
T3 130 43.84 33.7 43.35 33.3 42.97 33.1 43.21 33.2 Pass
T201 130 80.35 61.8 79.64 61.3 79.06 60.8 79.56 61.2 Pass
T101 130 60.38 46.4 59.55 45.8 58.94 45.3 59.15 45.5 Pass
LS801 130 48.3 37.2 48.02 36.9 47.91 36.9 48.01 36.9 Pass
LS802 130 47.17 36.3 47.01 36.2 46.88 36.1 47.06 36.2 Pass
CS202 105 66.52 63.4 66.32 63.2 66.19 63 66.49 63.3 Pass
CS805 105 48.42 46.1 48.37 46.1 48.17 45.9 48.4 46.1 Pass
CS213 105 46.76 44.5 46.7 44.5 46.52 44.3 46.74 44.5 Pass
QS805 175 49.46 28.3 49.31 28.2 49.19 28.1 49.35 28.2 Pass
QS806 175 46.58 26.6 46.47 26.6 46.27 26.4 46.49 26.6 Pass
QS803 175 49.06 28 48.92 28 48.74 27.9 48.93 28 Pass
QS804 175 48.23 27.6 48.08 27.5 47.8 27.3 48 27.4 Pass
IC101 125 54.92 43.9 54.4 43.5 54.03 43.2 54.25 43.4 Pass
IC801 150 49.17 32.8 49.02 32.7 48.86 32.6 49.01 32.7 Pass
D2 150 59.86 39.9 54.85 36.6 49.13 32.8 48.82 32.5 Pass
LS101 130 46.19 35.5 45.81 35.2 45.56 35 45.74 35.2 Pass
LS201 130 66.39 51.1 66.16 50.9 66 50.8 66.18 50.9 Pass
R36 150 83.47 55.6 69.2 46.1 53.74 35.8 52.59 35.1 Pass
L2 130 76.59 58.9 66.89 51.5 56.69 43.6 55.82 42.9 Pass
CT201 130 50.53 38.9 48.6 37.4 46.93 36.1 47 36.2 Pass
AMB 40 40 40 40

 

Location SPEC SB mode Result
90V Derating (%) 264V Derating (%)
QS203 175 41.14 23.5 41.08 23.5 Pass
QS201 175 42.77 24.4 42.72 24.4 Pass
QS103 175 48.31 27.6 48.29 27.6 Pass
CS106 105 50.28 47.9 50.32 47.9 Pass
FL1 130 42.83 32.9 42.8 32.9 Pass
FL3 130 43.44 33.4 43.45 33.4 Pass
BD1 150 42.6 28.4 42.55 28.4 Pass
C6 105 41.03 39.1 41.05 39.1 Pass
L1 130 40.42 31.1 40.44 31.1 Pass
Q201 150 40.46 27 40.46 27 Pass
Q202 150 40.41 26.9 40.43 27 Pass
D6 175 40.67 23.2 40.68 23.2 Pass
Q1 150 40.46 27 40.48 27 Pass
L201 130 40.66 31.3 40.69 31.3 Pass
T3 130 40.37 31.1 40.3 31 Pass
T201 130 41.47 31.9 41.49 31.9 Pass
T101 130 60.12 46.2 60.14 46.3 Pass
LS801 130 42.22 32.5 42.24 32.5 Pass
LS802 130 41.3 31.8 41.29 31.8 Pass
CS202 105 41.64 39.7 41.64 39.7 Pass
CS805 105 41.46 39.5 41.48 39.5 Pass
CS213 105 40.96 39 40.99 39 Pass
QS805 175 41.85 23.9 41.85 23.9 Pass
QS806 175 41.53 23.7 41.56 23.7 Pass
QS803 175 41.96 24 41.98 24 Pass
QS804 175 42.35 24.2 42.36 24.2 Pass
IC101 125 58.77 47 58.83 47.1 Pass
IC801 150 41.54 27.7 41.55 27.7 Pass
D2 150 42.43 28.3 42.45 28.3 Pass
LS101 130 47.09 36.2 47.1 36.2 Pass
LS201 130 41.58 32 41.58 32 Pass
R36 150 41.05 27.4 41.04 27.4 Pass
L2 130 40.36 31 40.37 31.1 Pass
CT201 130 40.41 31.1 40.45 31.1 Pass
AMB 40 40

 

大家都知道電子零件的操作溫度是越低越好,通常零件的操作溫度與壽命成反比的關係,看完這報表是否對於全漢企業的商品比較安心呢?因為多數的零件在不同的滿載條件下操作溫度距離額定降溫值〈Derating〉都還有一段距離,我們也因此可以確定這個產品的可靠度以及輸出穩定度有一定的水準。大家是否對於全漢的實驗室設備好奇呢?我們有哪些設備去測試新產品?下面幾張照片讓大家認識一下我們的實驗室。

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